GUI refers to Graphical User Interface. In other words, it is the interface that a user of your application can see. GUI Testing is a form of software testing that examines the product’s graphical user interface. The goal of Graphical User Interface (GUI) Testing is to guarantee that a software application’s features operate as expected by inspecting displays and controls such as menus, buttons, and icons.
The user interface is what the user sees. If you go to guru99.com, the first thing you’ll notice is the homepage, which is the site’s GUI. The source code is hidden from the user. The user may see the user interface. The attention is mostly on the design structure and whether or not the pictures are functioning properly.
For example, let’s assume that you develop a login page. If the login button is not visible on a web browser due to a resolution issue, it will not be usable for the users. You should detect such problems and overcome them during GUI testing.
Multiple approaches are there to do GUI testing. The most common approach out of them is manual based testing. This is where the tester will test graphical screens manually to ensure that they match with desired functionality. You can also do record and play in agile testing. There are automation tools, which can be helpful to get the job done. Another approach that you can follow is model based testing. This is where you develop a model to mimic system behavior, determine inputs and outputs, and run the test. Then you can compare the expected outcome with actual output.
— Slimane Zouggari
The concept of Pair Programming that you can find in agile software development is an approach, where two programmers are trying to develop a product while working from a single workstation. They don’t code separately. Instead, they work together and support each other as writing the code. Usually what happens in Pair Programming is where one developer would write the code, whereas the other person would play the role of a navigator or observer. This is where the observer would continuously review each and every line of code that is typed.
At the time of observing the code that is written, the observer would also determine the strategic direction on where the work should follow. He will be coming up with new ideas for implementations along with time. On the other hand, the observer will plan how to address future problems that would take place as well. This would eventually free the driver. Hence, the person who is writing the code will be able to focus only on the tactical aspects of completing the task that is assigned to him. This can eventually help the person who writes the code to overcome pressure and fully focus on the code that is being written.
Pair Programming is a proven method available to enhance overall product quality as well. That’s because two developers who come from two different backgrounds will be able to bring in different experiences into the task. On the other hand, they will be able to assess information that is related to the task in numerous ways. It will even be possible for them to stand in different relationships while catering to the problem. Due to the effectiveness of Pair Programming, the popularity of it is increasing along with time.
— Slimane Zouggari
Agile organizations are highly creative, collaborative, and adaptive. In fact, you can make an agile organization equivalent to a living organism, which is operating on various principles. They would usually flatten the overall hierarchical structure, which would make the organizational chart unimportant. They will be based upon self-organization, autonomy, and empowerment. Hence, hierarchical leadership would not be the best fitting leadership style for an agile organization. It is important for an agile organization to follow Emergent Leadership style. Then it is possible to have the right leadership in all different instances, whenever it is required.
When it comes to an agile organization, each and every person would be a leader. In other words, everyone will be able to take a step and go for an initiative. In cast if that initiative is grabbing the interest of others, it is possible for establish a team, and go ahead with supporting it. This would deliver radical transparency to an agile team. On the other hand, it would be possible to take care of feedback, while correcting the ideas that don’t support the overall purpose that a team is trying to achieve.
Emergent Leadership is the best leadership style that is available for an agile development environment as of now. That’s because an agile environment would have a highly collaborative culture, which is based with a high level of safety, transparency, and trust. On top of that, it would also have an excellent evolutionary purpose as well. This would create alignment within the different parts of the organization, which would help it to head in the same direction along with a clear purpose. On top of that, it is possible to stick to this leadership style and achieve a higher level of collaboration, which would eliminate chaos.
— Slimane Zouggari
Presentation karaoke is the situation where a presenter is provided the task of delivering a presentation based on a set of slides that he has not seen before. This would help a presentation to quickly adopt and deliver a presentation based on a set of random slides that he is seeing for the very first time. There are numerous applications associated with Presentation Karaoke. For example, it is used as an exercise by the conference speakers, so that they will be able to master the presentation. It is even possible to use this principle within an agile environment, which is highly dynamic.
During Presentation Karaoke, each and every speaker would speak according to the theme of the presentation. It is possible for them to have fun while going through the presentation as well. These speakers are behaving similar to the high performing agile teams. That’s because they will have to roll along with the punches.
The high performance agile teams ensure that there is ap roper plan, theme, and a backlog in place. They will have to adhere to that and work on their agile developments. However, the requirements on the backlog can sometimes change. This is where the developers would come across the need to adopt then and there. It is never a good idea to be panic when the requirement change. Instead, it is important to understand how to get things to work. That’s because it is practically not possible to go ahead with the flow when you are in a panic.
During Presentation Karaoke, some speakers will make connections in between the slides. Likewise, the developers in an agile environment will also be able to make connections in between the backlog items. No matter what, it would help the developers to quickly adopt and deliver the backlog items at the end of the day.
— Slimane Zouggari
There is no need for the organizations to implement projects in order to bring change. It is possible for them to follow a unique approach, a set of tactics, and appropriate techniques in order to ensure continuous change within the organization. This is creating the concept of #noprojects. The main objective of #noprojects is to align the activities to outcomes, which are measured by value. They are also supported by continuous delivery methodologies and guided by the principles.
Projects are capable of addressing a static requirement. In other words, the requirement is identified. However, the customer needs would change along with time. Hence, the need identified at the beginning of the project would change. This is why it is possible to adhere to the #noprojects approach and go ahead with continuously delivering change. Then it is possible to continuously prioritize the customer demands and deliver to them accordingly.
For the concept of #noprojects to be implemented, it is important for every organization to focus on the outcomes, instead of outputs. On the other hand, the teams should work on the activities, which can help them to create change within the context of a specific outcome.
Projects are known to be expensive. This is another reason on why the #noprojects and noestimates concepts are gaining more attention in agile environment. Since there is no project, you don’t find a need to estimate. Instead, you will be budgeting according to the need to proceed with continuous change and deliveries. This is a more practical approach of handling customer needs and catering to the customer requirements. It offers a high level of flexibility. On top of everything, it would address all the possibilities that are associated with failing a project as well.
— Slimane Zouggari
At the time of starting a new agile development project, the developers often tend to make the mistake of shifting their focus on the technologies that they should use. This is where they will take a look at the solution, develop a proof of concept, and then pick the right technology. Only after few months of starting developments, the team will figure out that they have made an incorrect decision. This happens not because we take incorrect decisions. It happens because we fail to consider some of the decisions at all. This is why it is often recommended to try and delay decisions.
One of the basic recommendations that you can see in agile decision making is to defer the decisions and delay them. It is not the responsibility of the architect to make decisions. Instead, the architect should develop a structure, which is providing freedom to defer and delay the decisions as much as possible. When you delay a decision in an Agile environment, you will be able to collect more information, which can be helpful when making the correct decision.
When you defer decisions in the agile environment, you will not completely refrain from making a choice. You should have a place to start, so that you can work on the project. Selecting a technology is just one thing. However, committing to it will be another thing.
The software architects should be careful about the way how the system is designed to integrate some of the technologies. It is important to maintain flexibility in the solution, so that one integration can be replaced with another one in the future. This will help to get the most out of agile decision making process.
— Slimane Zouggari
The Change Curve is one of the most powerful models, which is being used to understand the different stages of organizational change and personal transition. It is important for an agile company to have a solid understanding about change management. Then they will be able to minimize the negative impacts that change can bring in. Along with that, it will be possible for those companies to end up with effective results at the end of the day as well.
The primary objective of implementing The Change Curve is to understand how people will respond to change. For example, when a new person is taken into a new software development team, he will have to work with a new client and a new leader. It is important for the team member to accept this change and move forward. Then it is possible to make sure that the change is not creating a negative impact on project success at the end of the day.
There are multiple stages in The Change Curve. The very first stage is where the change is initially introduced. It is possible to see the reactions of people in this stage, which are associated with denial or shock. The second stage of the curve is how they become critical of themselves. On the third stage, you will be able to see how doubt is creating an impact on the work that is done by the team members. They will ask a series of questions when going through this phase. Then they will move to the next stage, where they will accept rationalisation by forgetting what they have lost. Along with that, they come in to the last stage, where they focus on solving problems and accepting change.
— Slimane Zouggari
The Sahota Culture Model is an important model that all the agile teams will be able to follow. It was developed in order to understand organizational culture in a better way. In fact, the Sahota Culture Model is sharing a clear understanding about the culture via identification of the different elements, which are interconnected with each other and which are responsible for shaping the culture. This will also highlight the need to focus on the structures as well as the consciousness of a system.
People who work for agile teams often tend to focus on the processes or structures, instead of focusing on people and understanding how they work together. This can eventually give life to a variety of negative consequences. The primary objective of The Sahota Culture Model is to make sure that it doesn’t happen. In this model, we are reminded of the fact that the reality is all about consciousness or the mind-set of the people, instead of processes and structures.
As per the current organizational structure, leaders are influencing the followers. They are the ones who create the processes and urge the followers to adhere to the processes and move forward with them. This kind of a culture will not be able to deliver the best possible results to an organization. That’s why it is important to move forward with a different cultural model. The Sahota Culture Model will create an ideal environment for that.
Upon the implementation of Sahota Culture Model, it is possible for the followers to go ahead and influence the leaders. Along with that, they will be able to tell the leaders that they are expecting a change and inquire how they will be able to contribute towards it. That’s where the followers will be able to introduce appropriate changes to their behaviour and get the results they expect.
— Slimane Zouggari
If you are looking forward to evolve the culture of your agile organization, you need to pay more attention towards Laloux Culture Model. That’s because it shows a clear indication on how you will be able to evolve and move forward as an organization.
The primary objective of Laloux Culture Model is to reinvent organizations. In here, the talents of people who work for an organization are unleashed. Along with that, it is possible to end up with excellent results. In order to do that, Laloux Culture Model will explain how you will be able to understand how the organization culture looks like.
The Laloux Culture Model will showcase how the society has evolved throughout the past years and discovered new methods of working together. Every stage is associated with value. Going for an advanced working methodology will not always deliver better results. It is all about ensuring that the requirement matches with the context.
There are multiple elements in Laloux Culture Model. If you want to get a better understanding about this model, you should be aware about those different elements as well.
- Centralized power and structure
Centralized power and structure will showcase that you are the leader and everyone should agree to what you say. Street gangs is a perfect example for centralized power and structure. This is represented by the hierarchy of the organization. It explains how command and control flows down.
It is also important to shift focus accordingly, so that better achievements can be obtained at the end of the day. In here, you create plans and make people accountable for achieving those plans in a timely manner.
It is also important for the organizations to empower people who work. Then it is possible to provide support for the people and allow them to achieve their goals.
Laloux Culture Model will also focus on self-managing people. They are making their decisions independently.
— Slimane Zouggari
Schneider culture model explains how people are getting things done in order to ensure their success in the future. This culture model was developed by William Schneider, who has been working as a psychologist for more than four decades. According to Schneider culture model, he explains that no culture is better when compared to another. Instead, you will only be able to discover strengths and weaknesses in the different cultures. If you can keep this fact in your mind and move forward, you will be able to understand the perfect culture, which will match with the work that you do in the company or team.
Having different cultures within an agile company can often lead towards conflicting situations. Hence, it is better to implement the best fitting culture and move forward with that.
When you deep dive and take a look at Schneider culture model, you will notice that there are four different types of cultures.
Control culture is process driven. It is ensuring organization success based on processes and data. In here, the control culture would not require any competition. Leaders will manage the work. You can find control cultures in police and military.
Collaboration culture is where people work together in order to achieve one common goal. You will be able to find working managers in here. It is important to have excellent relationships in here, so that the goals can be achieved effectively.
Cultivation culture is often focusing one greater mission. This culture can be found in social impact organizations, non-profit organizations and religious organizations. In here, the leaders will remove obstacles that will keep the organization away from achieving its mission.
Competence culture is using the best possible talents in order to bring out ideas. This culture is all about winning by bringing the best talent. For example, they focus on developing the best product on the market.
— Slimane Zouggari