Little’s Law

What is Little’s Law?

During the mid of the 1900s, John little presented a law which is clearly related to business community. In this law, he presented that the company have equal ratio between the multiplication of rate of the customer arrivals by the time which a customer spends and regular number of customers of company, it is called Little’s law.

Its commonly used expression is L = λW, which is explained like this,

  • “L” shows the average number of customers,
  • “λ” is denoted for the customers arrival average and
  • “W” is for time which customer spends in the system.

When the number of customers are increasing in a system and the arrival rate remains constant then average time of the customer will be increasing in the system. Simply we can say that when the number of customers is increased it means that the time required to serve each of them is also increased.

How is it used in Kanban?

If little’s law is used in Kanban it make sense and relationship between, average number of customers, average rate of customers and time spent by the customers in the system.

If customers arrive at the rate of 10 per hour, staying average is 0.5 per hour. Find the average number of customers in the system.
Here, λ= 10, W= o.5 then L=?

L= λ*W

There are different terms use in Kanban according to the Little’s law. The most common term WIP, Work in Progress is used.

WIP= rate of customers * spending time by customers, here WIP=L

The number of items on which team is working is denoted as WIP. In Kanban different things can be taken as a measurement unit such as, situations, cards, stories related users and more.

Why it matters?

Any system that mean waiting time then Little’s Law can be used there, in the real world situations measurement of inflow is difficult than measurement of outflow.  This is a general formula and its generality makes it easy to use and to be in different time related situations.

— Slimane Zouggari


If you are looking for a user friendly data base for project management then Kantree is the best visual project management tool for you. The team can adapt it very easily as it work to allow all the teams in the company to work together so that the project’s success rate is increased. All kinds of projects can be managed with ease as all the information is shared so the team can process it without any hassle.

How does it work?

Teams can communicate with each other and they get a clear idea of everything that is going on around the company and they can communicate with each other on how to improve the efficiency of the teams for the betterment of the company.

This exceptional tool increase the participation of different teams in a project and thus the managers can resolve other issues coming in the way of project so taking the company to new heights.


Let us have a look on the features of Kantree and the benefits you will get when using this amazing tool:

  1. It is a planning tool as you know that project management needs historical data to know the future of that project, now with Kantree it is easy to make decisions for the future of the projects by analyzing the history of the previous projects. We all know that all the projects are different from each other but this tool is customized to fulfill all the needs that are required in project management. User freedom is provided by this tool so that the user can specify and organize multiple projects.
  2. Project can be analyzed in different formats and angles, as it can be done by checking it in different views. After searching through the cards, the user can filter them immediately; moreover there is a list view that will allow the manager to do planning of the project.
  3. By using this tool you will be able to cooperate and collaborate with many users real time.
  4. It supports French and English.


Redmine and Trello comes as the competitors of Kantree, but Kantree with astounding features managed to stand out.

— Slimane Zouggari

Kanban – classes of services

What are classes of Services in Kanban?

Kanban is a board by which company’s agile development, set their goals and services and categorizes them into different classes.

In this context, Kanban has different classes of specific services that are change and unique to each other.

When we classify the services in different categories, then it becomes easy to understand and implement. It is beneficial to divide the work according to its urgency and its impact on the line of business. By doing this team of the company workers can do their project with more reliability and validity.

More often these classes of service are based on delivery time, cost of products, quantity and standards.

Why it matters?

Well, there are tickets which have classes of service that help in progress the tasks that are found on the board. We need to identify the most important tasks and need to do them first as they are needed to be done first. After selecting the tasks the time required to process a task and then all the issues in the task are resolved and the task is processed further. This is all you get when you are using the classes of services in Kanban board.

How is it used?

When the work items on which the team needs to work are distinguished on the basis of priority, then we can say that this is the class or services in Kanban. These items are treated according to the urgency then the team can make the reliable forecasts and the time frame in which the order needs to be delivered can be set so that it can be done in time.

This class of service is actually based on the risk information about the economic impact of the work item that can it be delayed or not.


  • The flow of work can be improved
  • Delivery deadlines met
  • Effective work
  • Issues solved

It is clear that classes of services in Kanban ought to be used for effective work and less load on the team.

— Slimane Zouggari

Why limiting the WIP

Limiting the WIP (work in progress) means that it restricts the maximum amount of the items on which we are working in the Kanban board in order to set the workflow. If you are working on multiple items at a time then you should limit the WIP it will allow you to complete the single items in no time, eventually it will help the team to focus on the current going tasks and work effectively.

Now, when you are limiting the WIP then they can work effectively and their work processes can be enhanced for good. These limits are actually considered beneficial for the deadlines as it will be easy to meet the deadlines for the products, production rate will be increase likewise.


We can say that limiting WIP is a valuable asset when working with the Kanban board. Let us have a look on the benefits more closely:

  • When we are talking about agile development then limiting the WIP can help to make the identification of inefficiency easier, and the team’s workflow can be managed easily.
  • We can see the improvement in the end product
  • Smaller set of tasks can be done more efficiently by the team.
  • The bottlenecks and the blockers become more visible.
  • The issues that were a hurdle or were blocking can be understood by the teams and they can resolve them accordingly.
  • Flow of work is attained when the blockers are removed
  • The focus on the tasks is increased and task switching is reduced
  • When the customers are getting the items on time, then increased feedback will be noticed from the customers.
  • If the team is working smoothly on Kanban board from left to right and they are facing less overload of work then the efficiency of work is increased

No doubt, limiting the WIP is an imperative tool in the agile development and no one can deny its importance in Kanban board. There are a lot of benefits of limiting the word in progress and the work can be more effective in this way so it is recommended that you should limit the work in progress whenever needed.

— Slimane Zouggari


What is HIPPO?

HIPPO is an abbreviation which is used for “Highest Paid Person’s Opinion” and secondly it is taken in the sense of “Highest Paid Person in the Office”.  It makes a difference between lower paid persons or employees and HIPPO in an office or working place.

HIPPO has a power to change all the work done with help of data by the human decision-making nature.

HIPPO is the main person’s interference at the last moment of the project completion and offers you to include his suggestion or opinion and changes management. You ought to include this suggestion or idea, even if you do not want to add it or it is not enough worth.

Simply, you cannot reject the HIPPO’s idea at any cost and cannot raise question in front of him.

Dangers of HIPPO?

Most of us are working under HIPPO, who clearly dominates, makes decisions and change management and our decisions easily. This dominating person or boss who is enabled to criticise, employee ought to accept his idea and restrict to make change according to his instruction. You are not able to challenge the HIPPO and cannot raise any question in front of his decision. Most of the time a junior employee works hard and makes some perfect plans, which are able to raise the company up but he compels to change it because he gets the order to change this strategy by HIPPO.

Alternatives of HIPPO:

It is necessary for us to change our minds according to the time and try some other alternatives of HIPPO for betterment of our future.

  • Do not make a boss or executer a task maker or judge, instead of taking their opinion you can make your strategies on the basis of factual data.
  • Contact with experts, agile investors and consumers and get more ideas and feedback because they have experience.

— Slimane Zouggari

Horizon Planning

Every company or organization makes strategy and do some planning for its future, this preparing called a Horizon Planning. Actually, it defines the volume of time which is suggested by organization for this plan. Every organization makes plan for different time periods, like some companies select five years Horizon planning but a general horizon planning usually is for one year.

It has a special importance in any organization’s future because with the help of this a company decides that what to do? When to do? And why?

To understand this, let us take an example here, if my vision is that I would like to help people to live healthier life, then I will try to do something for them. For their help suppose I start a water purification factory, then I make plan with the help of my co. We select a nearest area for the supply pure water and then we get the amount of water which will be enough for them in a day. We will set this plan for a year; this planning is called horizon planning.

Levels of Horizon planning:
There are different levels of horizon planning in project management, some are below;

Short range planning:
Most of the companies, make the plan for weeks and months, this is called short range planning. This weekly or monthly real-time management decide that what the company will do the next, in certain period of time for the local scale. It shows company plans to produce it products in a specific shapes, quantities and time.

Medium range planning:
For long time management and work, company makes medium range planning for the regional platforms. It is make for months and a year. This plan is documented, well form and agreed by all parties. The company make it sure that all products produce on market demand and supply on the time.

Long Term planning:
This planning covers long time periods, most of the companies make that long-range agile planning for five years and set plans for future improvements. This planning is made for the highest supply based on long term agreements and for national and international platforms.

— Slimane Zouggari

Buffer Fever Chart

Fever chart is known as a visual chart that is used to know project of any project on which you are working. We can say that it is one of the tools we use when we are working on different projects so it is a project management tool. Now why its name is Fever chart? Well, it is due to the fact that it has graphs and curves and the three colors are referred as the fever the project is getting with time.
You can use fever chart for daily management, AIC – short interval Management, and it will help you to detect any kind of drift in the project that can make the project late by giving you early warning.
How to draw Buffer Fever Chart
Well, in general it has two axes:
1. Vertical y: which will tell you the relative consumption of the project you are buffering
2. Horizontal x: that will allow you to check on the progress of your project
Moreover, there are three green zones green, orange and red zone.
It is not very much difficult to draw a Buffer Fever Chart when you are aware of all ups and downs of your project. You will have to place all the small details of your project while creating a buffer fever chart. Observation of multiplication and overestimation of safety margins in all the approaches by checking the x-axes.
When to use it?
It is clear that when you have a project to work on and you want all the information of the project on a simple, single board then you ought to use buffer Fever Chart. This fever chart will allow you to see the performance of all the projects and the ups and downs of these projects so that you can manage them with efficiency.

— Slimane Zouggari

Dunning – Kruger effect

We usually see that most of the people actually believe that they are better than the other people among them who fall into the average category. When we talk about this phenomenon in psychology then it comes out that this phenomenon is known as the illusory superiority. Now, one specific kind of this one is known as Dunning-Kruger effect in which people exaggerate their abilities. Which means that they think that they have more than they actually have.

Many people think that this is quite normal if somebody is overestimating his abilities, he might work better and more effectively this way, but actually this is not that normal because what people do is that when they come to know that they were doing it all wrong they do not change their behavior and attitudes.

People know little but they pretend to know more than they actually know, in this way little knowledge can affect the overall results. They are going through change management so they are thinking that they are experts when they are not.


We all have come across to somebody on the internet in some serious debate and the point he is raising is not logical and right but the person do not change his opinion even after some logical answers.

Moreover, when we are sitting in a family gathering and the point comes when family matters convert into some socio-economic-political debate. At this point we come to know that the people around us are political science teacher, economics expert, sociology experts; or they think they are something like that but not who they actually are.

Even when sitting with friends, we know more about democratic issues rather than our real issues as we talk more about the issues we don’t really have to talk about.

So, the dunning-Kruger effect is that when somebody thinks that he is skillful on whatever he is doing but he actually is not, and with that little knowledge he ruins everything.

— Slimane Zouggari

Takt time

Takt is basically a German word for the person in the orchestra whose work is to adjust and control to tempo on the music. So when we use Takt time then it means that we are talking about the rate time or beat time. We can say that when it is the time duration that is given to a product to complete so that we can meet the customer’s demands.

Let us take an example here, if a company is having a takt time of 10 minutes for the completion of the product then they will set the time to 10 minutes to produce the product in the machine. In this way the machine will produce the desired product every 10 minutes. If the takt time is one hour then we will set the time to one hour so that we should not exceed the deadline.

It is not actually the time in which a product is produced but it is the time that how we can meet the demand of the customer in the provided time.

Different Levels of Takt time

There are not many levels of takt time, the levels mean that how much you have to manage in how time. The means if you have multiple projects to work on then you will have to manage all of them simultaneously then you have to make different levels of takt time in order to manage them, then you can have a minute by minute report. You can clear all the distractions and disruptions coming all your way in the project.

It is the best tool you can use to manage your projects and it works effectively that you can create mantras for every minute you are working. Moreover, if any of the process is unable to get to work in takt time then you will have to level the demand, ask the engineering resources to take a look on the issue, and can check additional resources in order to get along with the takt time.

— Slimane Zouggari

Can TOGAF work with Agile?

Nowadays most people are thinking that can Agile and TOGAF work together or not. For getting to know the answer of this question, we should figure out what TOGAF actually is?

TOGAF, The Open Group Architecture Framework is a platform which is providing different services to enterprise architecture such as; it gives the method for designing, it leads an enterprise information, planning and implementation of new design.

Same as this the methods of software development and continued planning and learning is described by Agile.

Why is it challenging to integrate TOGAF with agile projects?

If we are talking about agile and TOGAF work with each other, they are totally opposite and they have a clear cultural difference.

It is very necessary to know that TOGAF is not followed by letter framework, it inspires the people who are doing practice it to adapt and change the application model according to the needs which must suit the circumstances. It clearly means that the perfect modified TOGAF fit in with agile development.

TOGAF is doing another important task that it captures what is happening in large organisations which is not related of whether it is completed as part of a frame work.


To take fair and clear decisions and do some agreement that how things are done, it is necessary to reduce the repetition, set architectural decisions and set your application portfolio.

In the agile processes some trails have done to make TOGAF but there are some hurdles to do that like architectural vision can be replaced with backlog management.

It is important for an architect to know that agile gives and take more interactive and helping approaches to explain the architecture. The architecture need to prepare that they ought to take some urgent decisions regarding their team work and they must take a complete view of their work which is done by their team.

As an agile team, the architecture need to work with proper strategies, planning, modern techniques and related data, that they bring all of that from wider organization.

— Slimane Zouggari